TÜRKÇE
  Updated: 16/10/2018

Chapter 27 - Environment

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF THE EU :

The EU's environmental policy aims; to eliminate, to mitigate or to prevent pollution, to ensure ecologically balanced use of natural resources in order to foster sustainable development, to prevent environmental damage at its source, to secure the integration of environmental issues into other sectoral policies (energy, transport etc.).

Environment gained policy status with the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that established the European Union, by creating a political union besides economic and monetary union. The basic principles of the EU’s environmental policy are as follows: “polluter pays”, “integration with other policies”, “high level of protection”, “environmental damage shall be rectified at source”, “prevention” and “precaution”. Environment Action Programmes which have been prepared since 1973, have been quite influential in the development of the EU’s environmental policy.

The First Environmental Action Programme
The Second Environmental Action Programme
The Third Environmental Action Programme
The Fourth Environmental Action Programme
The Fifth Environmental Action Programme
The Sixth Environmental Action Programme
The Seventh Environment Action Programme

 

The Sixth Environment Action Programme has expired by July 2012.  The 7th Environment Action Programme, for the period up to 31 December 2020, shall have the following priority objectives:

- to protect, conserve and enhance the Union’s natural capital;
- to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green and competitive low-carbon economy;
- to safeguard the Union’s citizens from environment-related risks to health and well-being;
- to maximise the benefits of Union environment legislation by improving implementation;
- to improve the knowledge and evidence base for Union environment policy;
- to secure investment for environment and climate policy;
- to secure integration of environment into other policy areas and policy coherence;
- to enhance the sustainability of the Union’s cities;
- to increase the Union’s effectiveness in addressing international environmental and climate-related challenges.

With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, environment became an area of shared competence between the EU and its member states. Pursuant to the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union’s environmental policy shall contribute to pursuit of the following objectives:

  • - Preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment,
  • - Protecting human health,
  • - Prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources,
  • - Promoting measures at international level to deal with regional and worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change.


CONTENT OF THE CHAPTER :

Environmental acquis comprises both horizontal issues (environmental impact assessment (EIA), strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental liability, access to environmental information,) and legal arrangements on air quality, water quality, waste management, nature protection, industrial pollution control and risk management, chemicals, noise and climate change. Furthermore, environmental acquis also includes several international agreements. Alignment with the environmental acquis and the implementation require serious investment.

EU Integrated Approximation Strategy (UÇES) (2007-2023) contains detailed information concerning the technical and institutional infrastructure to be developed as well as environmental improvements and arrangements to be carried out in Turkey in order to ensure alignment with the EU’s environmental acquis and its effective implementation which all-together constitute a precondition for accession to the EU.  In this regard, UÇES sets out objectives, targets, strategies and activities to be undertaken in Turkey  in the priority areas including  water, solid waste, air, industrial pollution control , nature protection and horizontal sector. According to UÇES, the cost of investments necessary to ensure alignment with the EU’s environmental acquis (excluding chemicals and noise sectors) is estimated to be approximately 59 billion Euros. It is foreseen that 80 % of the aforementioned investments required in the environment sector will be carried out by the public sector while the remaining %20 will be carried out by the private sector. Works for updating UÇES  are also carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. The major EU environmental policy areas and the main EU legislation related to these areas are as follows:

Horizontal legislation covers Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (2011/92/EU), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) (2001/42/EC) and access to environmental information (2003/4/EC). Environmental Impact Assessment Directive No. 2011/92/EU requires the identification and assessment of direct or indirect effects of public or private projects on human beings, fauna and flora, soil, water, air, climate, material assets and cultural heritage. On the other hand, SEA Directive No. 2011/42/ECspecifies a process in which it is aimed to assess and minimize or eliminate the possible significant effects of plans and programs on environment.  The Directive 2003/4/EC on Access to Environmental Information lays down the principles concerning the right to have access to environmental information and regulates the accessibility of environmental information and its -dissemination to the public.

EU’s air quality legislation includes a framework directive on ambient air quality (Directive 2008/50/EC) and legal arrangements concerning ozone depleting substances, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, and fuel quality. The framework Directive on Ambient Air Quality introduces rules on clean air plans and programs, the assessment of the quality of ambient air, monitoring requirements and procedures by means of applying common methods for all pollutants.

EU legislation on water quality is mainly composed of the Water Framework Directive and the linked directives. Water Framework Directive based on the principles of integrated river basin management and the participation of the public in the decision making process is the main legal arrangement that aims to protect and improve the quality as well as the quantity of all water bodies in the EU.

The main legislation in the field of waste management is the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC).  The Waste Framework Directive sets up a waste management hierarchy. According to the waste management hierarchy, waste management strategies must aim primarily to prevent the generation of waste at its source. Where this is not possible, waste materials should be reused and if re-use is not possible, then be recycled. Those waste materials that can not be recycled should be used for other recovery (e.g. energy recovery). Safe disposal by incineration or in landfill sites is the option of last resort in hierarchy. Alongside the Framework Directive, the EU acquis in the field of waste management include legislation on landfill of waste, shipment of waste and numerous special waste streams (batteries and accumulators, end-of-life vehicles, waste electrical and electronic equipment, packaging and packaging waste etc.).

EU’s Birds and Habitats Directives are of significant priority in the field of nature protection. The aforementioned Directives contain the issues regarding the identification of protected sites -especially Natura 2000 sites- and primary safeguard measures, which should be taken into account in all the other sectors. The Directive 99/22/EC on Keeping of Wild Animals in Zoos is also an important piece of legislation covered by this sub-sector.

In the field of industrial pollution control and risk management, the main legislative arrangements are  Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) and Seveso II Directive (96/82/EC)  on the Control of Major-Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances. In the scope of Industrial Emissions Directive, it is aimed to merge Directive 2008/1/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), regulating the issues on integrated permit system, prevention of pollution during the production phase, management of pollution caused by production process, best available techniques (BAT) and public participation, together with other 6 sectoral directives. The aforementioned sectoral directives are:  Large Combustion Plants (2001/80/EC) Directive, Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/AT)(WID), Solvent Emissions Directive (1999/13/EC), 3 Directives About Waste Caused By Titanium Dioxide Industry (78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC, 92/112/EEC). In this respect, the directives other than Large Combustion Plants (2001/80/EC) Directive were repealed by Industrial Emission Directive by 7th January 2014. The Large Combustion Plants Directive will be repealed by 1st January 2016.

In the area of chemicals, the CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 contains provisions on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures. The other important legislation in the field of chemicals is the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances) Regulation. In the field of chemicals there are also legislation on exports and import of chemicals, reduction of persistent organic pollutants, biocidal products and test animals.

Under the heading of noise, there is a single Directive (2002/49/EC) on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise. The Directive calls for the preparation of strategic noise maps by Member States showing the situation in all agglomerations with more than 250.000 inhabitants, all major roads which have more than 6 million vehicle passages a year, major railways which have more than 60.000 train passages per year and major airports within their territories. The Directive also requires the Member States to draw up Noise Action Plans.

Regarding Climate Change, there are several legal arrangements in the EU on monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, emissions trading system (2003/87/EC), reducing emissions from sectors not covered by the emissions trading system (Effort Sharing Decision-406/2009/EC), carbon capture and storage, controlling F-gases and the protection of the ozone layer.

It has been recognized by the international community and scientific circles that in order to prevent the negative effects of climate change from being irreversible, the global average temperature rise shall be kept 2ºC below pre-industrial levels. Acting as the all-time leader of international efforts to tackle climate change, the European Union has endorsed ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets based on the critical 2ºC threshold. In this regard, until 2020 the EU aims to curb its greenhouse gas emissions by %20 compared to 1990 levels. The EU’s greenhouse gas emission target for 2030 has been adopted as %40 reduction compared to reference year 1990.

For more information on the European Union Policy on the Environment; (http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/index_en.htm)

For the list of environmental acquis under the responsibility of EC DG Environment please click.

For the list of environmental acquis under the responsibility of EC DG Climate Action please click.
 

PROGRESS ACHIEVED IN NEGOTIATIONS :

Screening process was completed for the Chapter on Environment in 2006, and two opening benchmarks have been set for the opening of the accession negotiations in this chapter:

1. Turkey presents to the Commission its comprehensive strategy for the gradual, well coordinated transposition, implementation and enforcement of the acquis in this chapter, including plans for building up the necessary administrative capacity at national, regional and local level and required financial resources, with an indication of milestones and timetables.
2. Turkey fulfils its obligations as regards the implementation of applicable environment acquis in line with the relevant EC-Turkey Association Council Decisions.

Following the fulfil-ment of the opening benchmarks, the assessment report on the fulfilment of the opening benchmarks for Chapter 27, Environment, for Turkey was approved in COREPER on November 12, 2009.

The Chapter on Environment was opened to accession negotiations at the Intergovernmental Conference which was held in Brussels on December 21, 2009.

Six closing benchmarks, one political and five technical, for the Chapter on Environment have been set in the EU Common Position. Technical closing benchmarks are provided below:

1. Turkey fulfils her obligations stemming from the Additional Protocol to the Association Agreement between Turkey and the EU (political criteria).
2. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the EU's horizontal and framework environmental legislation, including its transboundary aspects,
3. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the acquis in the field of water quality, notably its Framework Water Protection Law; establishes River Basin Protection Action Plans; and makes further significant progress in legislative alignment in this sector by adopting implementing legislation,
4. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the acquis in the field of industrial pollution control and risk management,
5. Turkey continues its alignment with the acquis in the remaining sectors of this chapter, including nature protection and waste management, in line with the Plan for Setting up Necessary Administrative Capacities at National, Regional and Local Level and Required Financial Resources for Implementing the Environmental Acquis and demonstrates that it will be fully prepared to ensure the implementation and enforcement of the EU requirements at the date of accession,
6. Turkey continues capacity building of the administrative bodies at all levels, including inspection services, in line with the Plan for Setting up Necessary Administrative Capacities at National, Regional and Local Level and Required Financial Resources for Implementing the Environmental Acquis, further improves coordination of work and demonstrates that all appropriate administrative structures will be in place in good time before accession to enable implementation and enforcement of the acquis  in all sectors of this chapter.

EFFORTS UNDERTAKEN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE CHAPTER ON ENVIRONMENT :

Efforts to transpose the EU’s legislation on horizontal sector, air quality, water, waste management, nature protection, industrial pollution prevention and risk management, chemicals  noise and climate change have been underway  in line with the Negotiating Position and Strategy Document.

RELEVANT PROJECTS :

For the projects implemented within the scope of 2002-2006 Turkey-EU Financial Cooperation please click.

The List of Projects Within the Scope of 2007-2013 IPA-I

Project Year/Number

 Project Title

 Beneficiary Institution

 State of
 Play

 TR0702.06

 Implementation of Nitrate Directive

 Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

 Completed

 TR0702.07

 Institution Building on Air Quality in the Marmara
 Region Environment

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR0702.08

 Capacity Building in the Field of Environment

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR0802.02

 The REACH Chemicals Project

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR0802.03

 Improving Emissions Control

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR0802.04

 IPPC-Integrated Pollution Prevention Control

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR0802.05

 Mining Waste Management

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization - Ministry of
 Energy and Natural Resources

 Completed

 TR2009/0327.01

 Control of Industrial Organic Volatile Compounds

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2009/0327.02

 Capacity Building on Water Quality Monitoring

 Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

 Completed

 TR2009/0327.03

 Implementation Capacity for Environmental Noise
 Directive

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2009/0327.04

 Implementation Capacity of Seveso II Directive

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2009/0327.05

 Strengthening of Institutional Capacity on CITES
 Implementations

 Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

 Completed

 TR2010/0327.01

 Alignment in Bathing Water Monitoring

 Ministry of Health

 Completed

 TR2010/0327.02

 Implementation of By-Law on SEA

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2010/0327.03

 Implementation of Persistent Organic Pollutants Project

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2010/0327.04

 Better Air Quality by Transposing Large Combustion
 Plant Directive 

 Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

 Completed

 TR2010/0327.05

 Capacity Building to Implement the Flood Directive

 Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

 Completed

 

 Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Environmental  Management in Turkey 

 Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 Completed

TR2011/0327.21.01

Capacity Building in Horizontal Sector (INSPIRE and Liability Directive)

Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

Continuing

TR2011/0327.21.02

Support to Mechanism for Monitoring Turkeys Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

Continuing

TR2011/0327.21.03

Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Completed

TR2011/0327.21.05

Conversion of River Basin Action Plans into River Basin Management Plans

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Continuing

TR2011/0327.21.06

Capacity Building on Marine Strategy Framework Directive in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

Continuing

TR2011/0627.01

Capacity Building for Implementation of Regulation on Export and Import of Dangerous Chemicals 

Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

Completed

TR2012.0740.14

Capacity Building Support to Turkey on Groundwater Management

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Continuing

 

Technical Assistance on Economic Analyses within River Basin Management Plans and Water Efficiency Aspects in 3 Pilot River Basins in Turkey

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Continuing

  Capacity Building on E-PRTR in Turkey Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization

Continuing

  Capacity Building in the field of climate change in Turkey Ministry of Environment and
 Urbanization
Continuing

 


Updated: 16/10/2018 / Hit: 83,856