TÜRKÇE
  Updated: 22/05/2020

Chapter 27 - Environment and Climate Change

ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY OF THE EU :

 

The EU's environmental policy aims to eliminate, to mitigate or to prevent pollution, to ensure ecologically balanced use of natural resources in order to foster sustainable development, to prevent environmental damage at its source, to secure the integration of environmental issues into other sectoral policies (e.g. energy, transport).

 

Environment gained policy status with the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that established the European Union, by creating a political union besides economic and monetary union. The basic principles of the EU’s environmental policy are as follows: “polluter pays”, “integration with other policies”, “high level of protection”, “environmental damage shall be rectified at source”, “prevention” and “precaution”. Environment Action Programmes which have been prepared since 1973, have been quite influential in the development of the EU’s environmental policy.

 

The First Environmental Action Programme

The Second Environmental Action Programme

The Third Environmental Action Programme

The Fourth Environmental Action Programme

The Fifth Environmental Action Programme

The Sixth Environmental Action Programme

The Seventh Environment Action Programme

 

The 7th Environment Action Programme, for the period up to 31 December 2020, shall have the following priority objectives:

 

  • to protect, conserve and enhance the Union’s natural capital;
  • to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green and competitive low-carbon economy;
  • to safeguard the Union’s citizens from environment-related risks to health and well-being;
  • to maximize the benefits of Union environment legislation by improving implementation;
  • to improve the knowledge and evidence base for Union environment policy;
  • to secure investment for environment and climate policy;
  •  to secure integration of environment into other policy areas and policy coherence;
  • to enhance the sustainability of the Union’s cities;
  • to increase the Union’s effectiveness in addressing international environmental and climate-related challenges.

With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, environment became an area of shared competence between the EU and its member states. Pursuant to the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union’s environmental policy shall contribute to pursuit of the following objectives:

 

  • Preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment,
  • Protecting human health,
  • Prudent and rational utilization of natural resources,
  • Promoting measures at international level to deal with regional and worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change.

 

CONTENT OF THE CHAPTER:

Environmental acquis comprises legal arrangements on air quality, water quality, waste management, nature protection, industrial pollution control and risk management, chemicals, noise and climate change as well as horizontal issues covering all areas of environmental management in general. Furthermore, environmental acquis also includes several international agreements. Alignment with the environmental acquis and it’s implementation require serious investment.

 

EU Integrated Approximation Strategy (UÇES) (2016-2023) contains detailed information concerning the technical and institutional infrastructure to be developed as well as environmental improvements and arrangements to be carried out in Turkey in order to ensure alignment with the EU’s environmental acquis and its effective implementation. In this regard, UÇES sets out objectives, targets, strategies and activities to be undertaken in Turkey in the priority areas including  water, solid waste, air, industrial pollution control, nature protection and horizontal sector. According to UÇES, the cost of investments necessary to ensure alignment with the EU’s environmental acquis is estimated to be approximately 60 billion Euros. It is foreseen that 80 % of the aforementioned investments required in the environment sector would be carried out by the public sector while the remaining %20 would be assumed by the private sector. The major EU environmental policy areas and the main corresponding legislation are as follows:

 

Horizontal legislation covers arrangements pertaining to such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (ELD) and access to environmental information.As one of the main  piece of legislation in this area, EIA Directive No. 2011/92/EUrequires identification and assessment of direct or indirect effects of public or private projects on human beings, fauna and flora, soil, water, air, climate, material assets and cultural heritage. On the other hand, SEA Directive No. 2011/42/EC specifies a process in which it is aimed to assess and minimize or eliminate the possible significant effects of plans and programs on environment. The Directive 2003/4/EC on Access to Environmental Information lays down the principles concerning the right to have access to environmental information and regulates the accessibility of environmental information and its dissemination to the public. The INSPIRE Directive (2007/2/EC) which aims to establish an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment, also falls under the scope of horizontal acquis.  

 

EU’s air quality legislation includes a framework directive on ambient air quality (Directive 2008/50/EC, Clean Air for Europe-CAFE) and legislation on volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. The framework Directive on Ambient Air Quality introduces rules on clean air plans and programs, the assessment of the quality of ambient air, monitoring requirements and procedures by means of applying common methods for all pollutants.

 

EU legislation on water quality is mainly composed of Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the linked directives. Water Framework Directive based on the principles of integrated river basin management and the participation of the public in the decision making process is the main legal arrangement that aims to protect and improve the quality as well as the quantity of all water bodies in the EU.

 

The main principles of the European Union in the field of waste management are the “producer responsibility and polluter pays principle”, “proximity principle” and “waste management hierarchy”. According to the waste management hierarchy which was defined in the Waste Framework Directive(2008/98/EC), waste prevention and re-use are the most preferred options, followed by recycling (including composting), then energy recovery, while waste disposal through landfills should be the very last resort. The EU waste legislation also sets specific targets to increase the recycling of specific waste streams, such as electronic equipment, cars, batteries, construction, demolition, municipal and packaging waste, as well as to reduce the landfilling of bio-degradable waste.  Within the framework of the Circular Economy Package (2015), which is one of the long-term plans of the EU on resource efficiency, the first Action Plan has been successfully implemented. Under the European Green Deal, the European Commission adopted new Circular Economy Action Plan (CEAP) on 11 March 2020. A circular economy reduces pressure on natural resources, and is a precondition for achieving the climate-neutrality target by 2050, ensuring an efficient and competitive EU economy and halting biodiversity lossThe EU’s most important legislation in the field of nature protection are the Birds Directive (2009/147/EC) and Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) on conservation of biodiversity through establishing NATURA 2000 network, and the CITES Regulation (EC/338/97) on protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein. Furthermore, a number of EU legislation is in force related to keeping of wild animals in zoos, prohibiting the use of leghold traps and preventing illegal import of timber products.

 

In the field of industrial pollution control and risk management, the main legislative arrangements are Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) and Seveso III Directive (2012/18/EC) on the Control of Major-Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances. In the scope of Industrial Emissions Directive, it is aimed to merge Directive 2008/1/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), regulating the issues on integrated permit system, prevention of pollution during the production phase, management of pollution caused by production process, best available techniques (BAT) and public participation, together with other 6 sectoral directives. The aforementioned sectoral directives are: Large Combustion Plants (2001/80/EC) Directive, Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/AT)(WID), Solvent Emissions Directive (1999/13/EC), 3 Directives About Waste Caused By Titanium Dioxide Industry (78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC, 92/112/EEC). In this respect, these directives were repealed by Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EC).

 

In the area of chemicals, the CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 contains provisions on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures. The other important legislation in the field of chemicals is the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances) Regulation. In the field of chemicals there are also legislation on exports and import of chemicals, reduction of persistent organic pollutants, biocidal products and test animals.

 

Under the heading of noise, there is a single Directive (2002/49/EC) on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise. The Directive calls for the preparation of strategic noise maps by Member States showing the situation in all agglomerations with more than 250.000 inhabitants, all major roads which have more than 6 million vehicle passages a year, major railways which have more than 60.000 train passages per year and major airports within their territories. The Directive also requires the Member States to draw up Noise Action Plans.

 

Regarding Climate Change, there are several legal arrangements in the EU on monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, emissions trading system (2003/87/EC), reducing emissions from sectors not covered by the emissions trading system (Effort Sharing Decision-406/2009/EC  and Regulation (EU) 2018/842), carbon capture and storage, controlling F-gases and the protection of the ozone layer, reducing emissions from the transport sector, and emissions stemming from land-use and land-use change.

 

The EU is a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement which constitute an indispensable part of the EU acquis. In accordance with it’s contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement, the EU committed to reduce it’s greenhouse gas  (GHG) emissions by %40 compared to 1990 levels by 2030. The EU’s long term goal for 2050 is to achieve net zero GHG emissions and make Europe the ever first climate neutral continent of the world. Based on this central goal, the EU’s new growth strategy named as the “European Green Deal” was officially announced on 11 December 2019. In accordance with the Green Deal, the European Commision drafted a “Climate Law”  proposal which aims to enshirne the EU’s climate neutality target and upgrade the Union’s emissions commitment for 2030 to  %50-%55 levels.

 

In the area of Civil Protection, the activities at the EU level are conducted by the Union Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM). The Mechanism operates under the Directorate General of European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (DG ECHO) of the European Commission. The overall objective of the EU Civil Protection Mechanism is to strengthen cooperation between the EU and the Member States in the field of civil protection, with a view to improving prevention, preparedness and response to disasters. The Mechanism supports the efforts of Participating States to protect primarily people, but also the environment and property, including cultural heritage, against all kinds of natural and man-made disasters, including the consequences of environmental disasters, marine pollution and health emergencies, occurring inside and outside the Union. All EU Member States participate, as well as 6 Participating States (Iceland, Norway, Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey). The agreement on Turkey's participation in the EU Civil Protection Mechanism was signed on 6 May 2015. Decree on the ratification of the agreement between the Republic of Turkey and the European Union on the participation of Turkey in the Union Civil Protection Mechanism was published in the Official Gazette No. 29661 of 22 March 2016. The national coordination of the UCPM activities in Turkey is executed by the Ministry of Interior Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD).

For more information on the European Union Policy on the Environment; (http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/index_en.htm)

 

PROGRESS ACHIEVED IN NEGOTIATIONS :

Screening process was completed for the Chapter on Environment in 2006, and two opening benchmarks have been set for the opening of the accession negotiations in this chapter:

  1. Turkey presents to the Commission its comprehensive strategy for the gradual, well coordinated transposition, implementation and enforcement of the acquis in this chapter, including plans for building up the necessary administrative capacity at national, regional and local level and required financial resources, with an indication of milestones and timetables.
    2. Turkey fulfils its obligations as regards the implementation of applicable environment acquis in line with the relevant EC-Turkey Association Council Decisions.

 

Following the fulfil-ment of the opening benchmarks, the assessment report on the fulfilment of the opening benchmarks for Chapter 27, Environment, for Turkey was approved in COREPER on November 12, 2009.

 

The Chapter on Environment was opened to accession negotiations at the Intergovernmental Conference which was held in Brussels on December 21, 2009.

Six closing benchmarks, one political and five technical, for the Chapter on Environment have been set in the EU Common Position. Technical closing benchmarks are provided below:

  1. Turkey fulfils her obligations stemming from the Additional Protocol to the Association Agreement between Turkey and the EU (political criteria).
  2. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the EU's horizontal and framework environmental legislation, including its transboundary aspects,
  3. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the acquis in the field of water quality, notably its Framework Water Protection Law; establishes River Basin Protection Action Plans; and makes further significant progress in legislative alignment in this sector by adopting implementing legislation,
  4. Turkey adopts legislation aimed at transposing the acquis in the field of industrial pollution control and risk management,
  5. Turkey continues its alignment with the acquis in the remaining sectors of this chapter, including nature protection and waste management, in line with the Plan for Setting up Necessary Administrative Capacities at National, Regional and Local Level and Required Financial Resources for Implementing the Environmental Acquis and demonstrates that it will be fully prepared to ensure the implementation and enforcement of the EU requirements at the date of accession,
  6. Turkey continues capacity building of the administrative bodies at all levels, including inspection services, in line with the Plan for Setting up Necessary Administrative Capacities at National, Regional and Local Level and Required Financial Resources for Implementing the Environmental Acquis, further improves coordination of work and demonstrates that all appropriate administrative structures will be in place in good time before accession to enable implementation and enforcement of the acquis  in all sectors of this chapter.

 

EFFORTS UNDERTAKEN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE CHAPTER ON ENVIRONMENT :

Efforts to transpose the EU’s legislation on horizontal sector, air quality, water, waste management, nature protection, industrial pollution prevention and risk management, chemicals  noise and climate change have been underway  in line with the Negotiating Position and Strategy Document.

 

RELEVANT PROJECTS :

For the projects implemented within the scope of 2002-2006 Turkey-EU Financial Cooperation please click.

 

The List of Projects Within the Scope of 2007-2013 IPA-I

 

Programming Year

Project Title

Beneficiary Institution

State of Play

2007

Implementation of Nitrate Directive

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2007

Institution Building on Air Quality in the Marmara

Region Environment

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2007

Capacity Building in the Field of Environment

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2008

The REACH Chemicals Project

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2008

Improving Emissions Control

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2008

IPPC-Integrated Pollution Prevention Control

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed

2008

Mining Waste Management

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization - Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

Completed

2009

Control of Industrial Organic Volatile Compounds

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2009

Capacity Building on Water Quality Monitoring

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Completed

2009

Implementation Capacity for Environmental Noise Directive

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2009

Implementation Capacity of Seveso II Directive

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2009

Strengthening of Institutional Capacity on CITES Implementations

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Alignment in Bathing Water Monitoring

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Implementation of By-Law on SEA

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Implementation of Persistent Organic Pollutants Project

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Better Air Quality by Transposing Large Combustion Plant Directive

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Capacity Building to Implement the Flood Directive

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2010

Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Environmental Management in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Capacity Building in Horizontal Sector (INSPIRE and Liability Directive)

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Support to Mechanism for Monitoring Turkeys Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Conversion of River Basin Action Plans into River Basin Management Plans

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Capacity Building on Marine Strategy Framework Directive in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2011

Capacity Building for Implementation of Regulation on Export and Import of Dangerous Chemicals

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2012

Capacity Building Support to Turkey on Groundwater Management

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Completed

2013

Technical Assistance on Economic Analyses within River Basin Management Plans and Water Efficiency Aspects in 3 Pilot River Basins in Turkey

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs

Ongoing

2013

Capacity Building on E-PRTR in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2013

Capacity Building in the field of climate change in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and
Urbanization

Ongoing

 

Ongoing Projects under IPA II Period (2014-2020)

Programming Year

Project Title

Beneficiary Institution

State of Play

2014-2018

Technical Assistance for Improving Air Quality and Raising Public Awareness in Cities in Turkey – CITYAIR

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Ongoing

2014-2018

Supporting the Implementation of By-Law on Strategic Environmental Assesment

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Ongoing

2014-2018

Technical Assistance to conduct Chemical Safety Assesments under REACH Regulation

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 

Ongoing

2014-2018

Identification and Remediation of Contaminated Sites with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 

Ongoing

2014-2018

Enhancing Adaptation Action in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 

Ongoing

2014-2018

Addresing of Invasive Alien Species Threats in terrestrial areas and inland waters in Turkey

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 

Ongoing

2014-2018

Training for the Institutional Capacity Building on Climate Change Adaptation

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

 

Ongoing

 


 

 


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