TÜRKÇE
  Updated: 11/02/2022

Chapter 14 - Transport Policy

TRANSPORT POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:

The transport policy of the European Union aims to enhance the operation of the internal market via providing safe, secure, efficient and environmentally friendly transport services.

EU transport policies aim at fostering clean, safe and efficient travel throughout Europe, underpinning the internal market of goods and the right of citizens to travel freely throughout the EU. Within this context, transport policy priorities are defined as follows: setting up balanced structures of transport among different modes, improving intermodality and interconnections and overcoming bottlenecks. 

Since users constitute the focal point of the transport policy and there is a need for the sustainability of the transport services; common, uniform and mandatory implementations have been put into force through the adoption of new legislation in the area of road safety, passenger rights, social aspects and working conditions of the sector, decreasing negative environmental effects. 

According to the Treaty of Rome, transport is one of the areas for which common policies have to be adopted (Article 3, paragraph (e) of the Treaty). Transport Policy is in the center of the idea of a fully liberalized internal market and of the idea of the freedom of travel.

Although there are provisions for the Common Transport Policy in the Treaty of Rome, it took about 30 years to shape European Transport Policies after the Treaty. The Policy’s political, institutional and budgetary fundamentals were strengthened with the Treaty of the EU (Treaty of Maastricht, 1993) and the Treaty presented the concept of ‘Trans-European Networks”, and all these made Europe-wide transport infrastructure planning possible.

Articles 90-100 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Treaty of Lisbon, 2009) are containing the provisions about transport, and via these provisions Member States accept the legislative prerogative of the Union.

1992 White Paper of the Commission mainly deals with the issues about liberalization of transport market and within a ten years period, the market has almost fully been opened to competition. The only sector in which fully liberalization could not be realized in this period is railway sector.

With the development of the Common Transport Policy, the consumer prices decreased while the quality of service and the number of options increased. On the other hand, the policy did not developed in a fully harmonized and regular manner and problems like congestion on main roads, airports and main rail corridors, damages on human health and environment, accidents etc. could not have been eliminated.

The second White Paper was published by the Commission in 2001 and a ten-year perspective for Common Transport Policy was created. Within the White Paper, proposals for setting up balanced structures of transport among different modes, improving intermodality and interconnections and overcoming bottlenecks were developed, resource constraints were addressed. After the White Paper, compulsory and harmonized legislation was adopted for aviation safety, safety agencies were established for railway, aviation and maritime transport, passenger rights and social aspect of transport policy developed. Besides, after 11 September 2001 attacks security policies for different types of transport modes and critical infrastructure were created.

The last White Paper published in 2011 presents the proposals for a sustainable development of transport systems of the EU until year 2050. It is predicted that the greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced 60 % in 2050 compared to 1990, and rate of oil-based transport and the congestions will be decreased.

The Urban Mobility Plan was adopted in 2013. The package affirms that urban mobility is primarily the responsibility of local level actors. Local actors will be encouraged to develop transport plans to support the implementation of integrated strategies. In this context, a concept for Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) has been proposed; accessibility, urban smart transportation systems and urban security.On 9 December 2020, Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy was adopted by the European Commission. The Smart and Mobility Strategy is part of the European Green Deal and aims to reduce transport emissions by 90% until 2050.

The Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy includes an action plan interlinking 3 objectives, 10 flagships, 14 milestones and 82 initiatives.

3 main objectives of the Strategy;

•           An irreversible shift to zero-emission mobility.

•           Achieving seamless, safe and efficient connectivity.

•           A more resilient single European transport area for inclusive connectivity.

10 flagships of the Strategy;

•           Boosting the uptake of zero-emission vehicles, vessels and aeroplanes, renewable and low-carbon fuels and related infrastructure – for instance by installing 3 million public charging points by 2030.

•           Creating zero-emission airports and ports

•           Making interurban and urban mobility healthy and sustainable

•           Greening freight transport

•           Pricing carbon and providing better incentives for users

•           Making connected and automated multimodal mobility a reality

•           Boosting innovation and the use of data and artificial intelligence (AI),

•           Reinforce the Single Market

•           Make mobility fair and just for all

•           Step up transport safety and security across all modes – including by bringing the death toll  close to zero by 2050.

 

CONTENT OF THE CHAPTER:

The Transport Policy chapter includes the following topics:

- Road Transport
- Rail Transport
- Maritime Transport
- Air Transport

The main areas regulated by the EU Transport Policy Chapter are as the following; 

The main principles of road transport policy are creating a sustainable, efficient, secure and safe road transport system via decreasing its negative environmental effects. In framework of these principles, the EU aims to promote efficient transport of passengers and goods via road, enabling fair competition, harmonizing safer and more environmentally friendly technical standards, providing a minimum level for financial and social harmonization, and non-discriminatory implementation of road transport rules of the Union. EU acquis in this field mainly deal with the issues such as; access to the market and pursuit of the occupation (Regulations (EC) 1071/2009, (EC) 1072/2008 and (EC) 1073/2009), working hours, driving and resting periods and usage of digital and smart tachograph (Regulation  (EC) 165/2014), minimum annual taxation and road usage charging of vehicles (Directives 1999/62/EC and 2011/76/EC), driver licenses (Directive 2006/126/EC), maximum weight and dimensions (Directives 96/53/EC and 2015/719/EU), transport of dangerous goods by road (Directive  2008/68/EC), minimum safety requirements in road tunnels (Directive  2004/54/EC).

EU rail transport legislation regulates the areas of market liberalization, interoperability and institutional framework, rail safety, and access to infrastructure, internal market, freight transport, passenger rights, employment and working conditions of the sector. The main reference legislation regarding the market liberalization is Directive 2012/34/EU establishing a single European railway area. Due to the fact that rail transport was state monopoly during the 90’s, market liberalization in the rail transport sector followed a gradual opening started with the opening of freight market and followed by passenger transport since the beginning of 2000’s. With the 4th Railway Package adopted in 2016, full liberalisation of the rail market was envisaged. The Package is composed of a technical pillar (European Railway Agency, Interoperability and Rail Safety) and a market pillar (directive for the opening of the national rail passenger services). With the full enforcement of these regulations, it is envisaged to reach the target of the Single European Railway Area.  Interoperability which aims at unhampered rail transport services among the Member States is regulated byDirective (EU) 2016/797 of the European Parliament and of the Councıl of 11 May 2016 on the interoperability of the rail system within the European Union.

Due to global dimension of maritime transport, this mode is mostly regulated by participation to or transposition of international conventions adopted by International Labor Organization (ILO) in the area of working conditions or International Maritime Organization (IMO) in the other areas of maritime transport. Within the framework of EU maritime legislation the issues of market access conditions and fair competition, state aid in maritime sector, maritime safety and security, working conditions and protection of marine environment are regulated. Since 2000’s, especially after the ERIKA and PRESTIGE accidents, maritime safety has turned to be the number one agenda item of the Commission. Therefore three maritime safety packages has been adopted since 2000. The last maritime safety package was adopted on 23 April 2009 and that package regulates the rules regarding port and flag state requirements, class societies, accident investigation, liability of the carrier, insurance and traffic monitoring. The most recent document on maritime transport is the “Communication on Strategic goals and recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018”. In this Communication the Commission presents the main strategic objectives for the European maritime transport system up to 2018. The Strategy identifies key areas like competitive, safe, secure, clean and quality shipping, where action by the EU will strengthen the competitiveness of the sector while enhancing its environmental performance.  From 1 January 2020, the maximum sulphur content of marine fuels is reduced to 0.5% (down from 3.5%) globally – reducing air pollution and protecting health and the environment. Furhermore the European Green Deal, presented by the President of the Commission Ursula von der Leyen in December 2019, sets out further action to make shipping more sustainable such as the extension of the European emissions trading to the maritime sector.

Finally, acquis on air transport covers the issues such as; access to the market (Regulation (EC) 1008/2008), air traffic management (Regulations (EC) 549/2004(EC) 550/2004(EC) 551/2004(EC) 552/2004(EC) 730/2006(EC) 219/2007(EC) 255/2010), aviation safety (Regulations (EC) 216/2008(EC) 996/2010, Directive 2003/42/EC), aviation security (Regulation (EC) 300/2008), environment (Regulations (EC) 71/2008(EC) 1702/2003), Directive 2002/30/EC), ground handling (Directive 96/67/EC), protection of consumers (Regulations (EC) 261/2004(EC) 80/2009(EC) 1107/2006). With these legislation, the EU aviation sector became a free and harmonized market.

 

PROGRESS ACHIEVED IN THE NEGOTIATION PERIOD:

The explanatory meetings of this chapter were held on June 26-29, 2006 and the Country Sessions were held on September 25-28, 2006. The opening of this chapter to negotiations with Türkiye is still under discussion at the European Council and the screening report of this chapter has not been sent to Türkiye. On the other hand, this chapter is one of the eight chapters which have Ankara Agreement Protocol issue as opening benchmark. The screening report of this chapter has not been sent to Türkiye, but it was stated informally that the chapter can be opened for negotiations once the following two opening benchmarks are met, excluding the political benchmark concerning the full non-discriminatory implementation of the Additional Protocol of the Association Agreement.

I.          Türkiye has provided a clear strategy for the progressive alignment on the acquis in the railway sector. The strategy should include detailed plans for the separation of functions regarding infrastructure management and provision of services with target dates as well as institutional capacity-building measures.

II.         Türkiye has engaged in a process towards the recognition of “Community designation” and provided a clear strategy for the progressive alignment to the acquis on the Single European Sky. The strategy should address an acceptable technical solution to ensure the necessary communication in order to guarantee the appropriate level of air safety in the South Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Türkiye – EU High Level Transport Dialogue

During his visit to Türkiye in 2012, Vice President Siim Kallas proposed to establish a High Level Türkiye-EU Transport Dialogue mechanism. In this framework, it was decided to continue High Level Türkiye-EU Transport Dialogue as working group meetings at kick-off meeting in Brussels on 9 December 2013. In order to reach some solid results on different aspects of transport sector it is decided to form three working groups: First is the working group on rail transport together with Trans-European Transport policy, the second is the working group on road transport and last one is the working group on maritime transport.

Ministry of EU Affairs hosted the first working group meeting on rail transport together with TEN-T. During the meeting Turkish and European Commission side shared their opinions and relevant information on the areas of Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and rail transport with the common objective of enhancing the cooperation. The second working group meeting on road safety, intelligent transport systems and maritime transport was held in Brussels on 17 October 2014.

TR-EU High Level Transport Dialogue has been revitalized during the visit of Mrs. Violeta Bulc, European Commissioner for Mobility and Transport, to our country on 5-6 July 2017. The Ministerial level meeting was realized on 27 November 2017 in Brussels. The meeting was fruitful for the parties and a roadmap for future meetings and studies has been determined. On 20 April 2018, Mrs. Bulc revisited Türkiye and in this visit, a Ministerial meeting and a field visit to Halkalı-Kapıkule Railway Line, which will be constructed with EU funds, has been realized. The groundbreaking ceremony of Halkalı-Kapıkule Railway Line was held on September 25, 2019 in Edirne. Mr. Mehmet Cahit Turhan, Minister of Transport and Infrastructure, Mrs. Bulc and Mr. Angel Popov, Deputy Minister of Transport, Information Technologies and Communications of Bulgaria attended the ceremony.

On 15 January 2019, a high level dialogue with a comprehensive agenda was realized with a level of deputy Minister, and a meeting between Bulc and Mehmet Cahit Turhan, Minister of Transport and Infrastructure, was held on 5 February 2019 in the framework of Turhan’s visit to Brussels. In these meetings, it is decided to increase the cooperation between the parties. On the other hand, on July 15, 2019,  the Council of Foreign Affairs of the EU agreed not to hold further meetings of the EU-Türkiye high-level dialogues, including TR-EU High Level Transport Dialogue.

 

RELEVANT PROJECTS :

Programming Year

Project Title

Beneficiary Institution

State of
 Play

2006

Improvement of Road Safety in Türkiye

General Directorate of Highways

Completed

2007

Safer Seas: Upgrading of Turkish Coastal
 Radio

Directorate General of Coastal Safety

Completed

2007

Reform of the Turkish Railways

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications
 (Turkish State Railways)

Completed

2009

Weight and Dimension Controls of Commercial
 Vehicles

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Ongoing

2009

Strengthening Intermodal Transport in Türkiye

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2010

Improved Maritime Education & Training in Türkiye

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2010

Control of Ship-Sourced Emissions in Türkiye

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2010

Reform of the Turkish Railways (Phase II)

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2011

Improvement Of Maritime Safety Regarding Handling Of Dangerous Goods At Ports And Coastal Facilities

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2011

Capacity Building for Prevention of Marine Pollution Caused by Ship-Sourced Wastes

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications /Coast Guard Command/ Antalya, Mersin, Kocaeli and İstanbul Metropolitan Municipalities

Completed

2011

Strengthening Institutional and Administrative Capacity of the DGCA

General Directorate of Civil Aviation

Completed

2011

IPA Implementation Unit Compliance Evaluation Audit Study

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2011

Technical Assistance for Strengthening the Capacities of MoT IPA and End-Recipients

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2012

Capacity Building on Safety and Security Training Requirements of the Turkish Civil Aviation

General Directorate of Civil Aviation

Ongoing

2012

Assistance on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ESEI)

Ministry of Transport, Maritime
 Affairs  and Communications

Completed

2013

Road Safety – Vision Zero

Ministry of Interior, Turkish National Police

Completed

2013

Republic of Türkiye of the National Transport Master Plan Project Specification (TOR) Preparation

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2015

National Transport Master Plan for the Republic of Türkiye

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2016

Establishment of a “Transport Information Management System” for the TEN-T in Türkiye

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2016

Technical Assistance for Strengthening Operational Capacity through Training and In-house Consultancy to Support Procurement and Implementation of TOP Projects

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2016

Technical Assistance for the Operating Structure to Prepare and Strengthen Programming for the Period 2014-2020

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2016

Technical Assistance Project For Developing The Capacity Of The Directorate Of Eu Investments And Final Beneficiaries – II

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

2017

Framework Agreement for Updating Program Implementation Guide and Annexes

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Completed

 

 

 

Ongoing Projects under IPA II Period (2014-2020)

2014-2020

Strengthening the Transport Operating Structure and ERAs in IPA II (2014-2020) Period

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Ongoing

2014-2020

Supporting Implementations Regarding Railway Safety and Regulatory Functions of DG Railway Regulation (DGRR)

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Ongoing

2014-2020

Technical Assistance for the Capacity Building of KGM for the Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Türkiye

General Directorate of Highways

Ongoing

2014-2020

Enhancement of Institutional and Administrative Capacity of Directorate of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications Research Centre

Directorate of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications Research Centre

Ongoing

2014-2020

Strengthening Institutional Capacity of Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure on the Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Ongoing

2014-2020

Analysis of the Transport Legislation of Türkiye in the Process of Harmonisation with the EU Acquis

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Ongoing

USEFUL LINKS
European Commission DG Mobility and Transport
Website for EU Legislation on Transport Policy
Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure
DG of Road Transport Regulation
DG of Highways
DG of Civil Aviation
DG of State Airports Authority
DG of Railway Transport Regulation
DG of State Railways
EU Delegation for Türkiye

 


Updated: 11/02/2022 / Hit: 75,287