TÜRKÇE
  Updated: 22/05/2020

Chapter 15 - Energy

EUROPEAN UNION POLICY ON ENERGY

The EU energy policies are based on three principles:

-Competitiveness
-Security of supply
-Sustainability

EU aims to have a balance between these objectives while establishing energy policies. The EU legislation lays out the basis for competitive, qualified, diverse and cost effective energy market. This would pave the way for a more organized and efficient way of reaching various sectors for the use of energy. According to the EU legislation, common rules apply to market access, organization, operation, tender procedures and authorization methods. Liberalization in the electricity and gas sectors provides opportunities for investments by private sector actors.

In order to address the challenges of climate change, developing sustainable energy policies is one of the main components of the EU’s energy policies. With the approval of the Council, the European Commission has set three goals to address the energy challenges by the year 2020:

- To reduce energy consumption by 20%
- To increase the share of renewable energy resources by 20% and to increase the use of biofuels in transport by at least 10%
- To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20%

The European Council has endorsed greenhouse gas reduction, renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for 2030 on 23-24 October 2014 (2030 framework for climate and energy policies). The framework requires the EU to collectively reduce its emissions by at least 40% compared to 1990 levels. It also sets the goals to achieve at least 27% renewable energy in the EU's final energy consumption and a 27% or greater improvement in energy efficiency by 2030.  

Regarding the priority of resetting the energy policy of the Union as a new European Energy Union by reforms and reorganization, firstly “A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy” is published in 25 February 2015 and a Vice-President of the European Commission for Energy Union was appointed by the European Commission. 

The “Energy Union Framework Strategy” has five mutually-reinforcing and closely interrelated dimensions designed to bring greater energy security, sustainability and competitiveness:

  1. Energy security,
  2. A fully integrated European energy market
  3. Energy efficiency contributing to moderation of demand,
  4. Decarbonising the economy and
  5. Research, innovation and competitiveness 

There are 15 actions under the “European Energy Union Framework Strategy” and there are time schedule for regarding actions in the appendix of the Strategy. The EU shows quite strong political will and determination to form “common energy policy” by the plan of closely following the implementation of the strategy and the action plan, also by designating a vice president in charge of Energy Union for this issue.

One of the concrete outcomes of the Energy Union Framework Strategy vision was the announcement of "Clean Energy for all Europeans" on 30 November 2016, following the signing of the Paris Agreement. The main targets have been determined for the post-2020 period, respectively; giving priority to energy efficiency, providing global leadership in renewable energy and fair treatment of consumers.

Aforementioned package includes issues related to energy efficiency, renewable energy, the design of the electricity market, electricity supply security and the management of the Energy Union. The innovations brought by the new legislation under the package are listed below:

Renewable energy:

  • 2030 targets were revised increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption to 32%, with a review clause for 2023.
  • It includes arrangements regarding the design and stability of renewable energy support mechanisms.
  • It includes arrangements relating to the reduction and streamlining of administrative procedures.
  • A clear and stable regulatory framework is created for self-consumption.
  • It is aimed to increase the use of renewable energy for transport and heating/cooling sectors.
  • It is aimed at securing sustainability of bioenergy use.
Energy efficiency
  • 2030 targets were revised increasing energy efficinecy by a minimum of 32,5 %.
  • It is envisaged to increase the attractiveness of private investments and support the emergence of new market actors by expanding the annual energy saving obligation beyond 2020.
  • It is planned to strengthen the rules for individual measurement and billing of thermal energy, especially for the benefit of consumers living in multi-storey buildings with collective heating systems.
  • More frequent and useful information about energy consumption will be obtained and thus, heating bills will be more easily understood and controlled by the consumer.
  • Member States will need to establish transparent and open to general public national rules on allocating heating, cooling and hot water consumption costs.

Governance of the Energy Union

  • Implements a simple, robust and transparent governance system that supports long-term certainty and predictability for investors and enables the EU and Member States to work together to achieve their 2030 goals and the EU's international commitments under the Paris Agreement.
  • Urges each Member State to prepare a long term national energy and climate plan for the period 2021-2030, covering the five dimensions of the Energy Union.
  • Provides a system that reduces administrative burden and increases transparency to Member States, the Commission and other EU institutions by adjusting the frequency and timing of the reporting obligations of the Paris Agreement and the five dimensions of the Energy Union.

As part of the reforms regarding the EU energy policy under the “European Energy Union”, it was determined that there is a need to increase the negotiating power against third countries, to combine resources and infrastructures, to reduce dependency by diversifying energy resources. In this context, the Natural Gas Supply Security Regulation (EU) 2017/1938 of 25 October 2017, which repealed the current regulation regarding the measures taken to ensure energy supply security, was published.

The overall aim of the regulation is to strengthen the EU's energy security, reduce dependency in energy supply, and to cope with any natural gas supply crisis faster and more efficiently.

In addition, it will help the internal energy markets to function better; more trust and solidarity will be built both within the EU and with the Energy Community member countries.

The main issues in the Regulation are listed below:

  • Greater regional cooperation and coordination with countries open to risks
  • Establishing regional risk assessments and preparation of mandatory regional preventive action plans and emergency plans by all Member States in the same risk group
  • Increasing the monitoring mechanisms regarding the provisions in gas supply contracts
  • Establishment of a solidarity mechanism that will be enforced in extreme crisis scenarios
  • Regulating Commission duties coordinating the implementation of the legal framework between the EU and the Energy Community and the obligations of EU member states towards the Energy Community

 

CONTENT OF THE CHAPTER

The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply.  

 

Electricity and Natural Gas

The EU's directives on the electricity and natural gas sectors envisage that these markets are fully opened to competition and that all consumers can freely choose their suppliers and they are regulated by independent authorities. Also, improved cross-border trade, ensuring security of supply and providing access to the networks without discrimination by all parties are part of the legislation.

With the Clean Energy Package announced in 2016, a number of revisions were made in the legislation, and the current legislation on the electricity and natural gas markets is listed below:

  • Directive on Governance of the Energy Union (Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council)

 

Renewable Energy

The development of renewable energy sources (RES) is among the main priorities of the EU which appreciates their crucial role in both energy supply security and fighting climate change. The development of the related industry for these technologies is also deemed important for the creation of new jobs in the current economic environment within the Europe. For this reason, the EU has developed its renewable energy policy.

The Renewable Energy Directive, which came into force in 2009, establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU (Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC). It requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020 – to be achieved through the attainment of individual national targets- and additionally all member states must ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020. EU member states explain how they intend to reach their legally binding 2020 targets in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). In December 2018, the revised Renewable Energy Directive entered into force (Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) as part of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package. The new directive establishes a new binding renewable energy target for the EU for 2030 of at least 32%, with a clause for a possible upwards revision by 2023. Additionally, renewable transport fuels target set as at least 14% by 2030 with sub-targets for the share of advanced biofuels.Under the new Governance regulation (EU/2018/1999), which is also part of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package, EU countries are required to submit 10-year National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) starting from for 2021-2030, outlining how they will meet the new 2030 targets for renewable energy and for energy efficiency.

 

Energy efficiency

The EU legislation under energy efficiency covers the eco-design requirements of energy consuming products, cogeneration, energy performance of buildings, daylight saving applications and energy labeling. The main legislation on energy efficiency is listed below:

 

Nuclear safety and radiation protection

The EU acquis on nuclear energy comprises of nuclear safety at all stages of nuclear energy generation, radioactive waste and spent fuel management, radiation protection and nuclear power plant safety regulations (including responsibilities with respect to decomissioning, waste management, radiation protection, environmental impacts, economic and fiscal aspects and creating public awareness).

The EU attaches utmost importance to a high level of nuclear safety. A framework Directive in this area has been adopted on 25 June 2009. (Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom of 25 June 2009 establishing a Community Framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations and its amendment Directive 2014/87/Euratom). All member states are required to have a national policy for radioactive waste and spent fuel management (Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste). Furthermore, basic safety standards have been established to protect the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation). 

 

RELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND USEFUL LINKS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ENERGY CHAPTER

For detailed information on the European Union energy policy:

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/summary/chapter/energy.html?root_default=SUM_1_CODED=18

European Commission DG ENERGY website

 

CURRENT NEGOTIATIONS ON THE ENERGY CHAPTER

The explanatory meeting for the energy chapter was realized between 15-17 May 2006 and the country session was completed between 14-15 June 2006. The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply.

On the other hand, following the European Council Decision on October 15, 2015 to re-energize the accession process, studies for updating the draft screening report have been initiated in November 2015 and the studies for the finalization of the technical aspects is ongoing. The screening report is still in the Council and has not been conveyed to the Turkish side. There is information that certain Member States are preventing progress in the Council and that non-technical considerations without relevance to the acquis communautaire have prevailed. 

Besides, in 2012 “Positive Agenda” was initiated in order to gain momentum in the negiotiations. In this context, on 14 June 2012, "Turkey-EU Energy Sector Enhanced Cooperation" document was prepared to create concrete solutions for the energy cooperation.

Under the roadmap, working groups were established the coordination of our and five working group meetings were organized on electricity sector, natural gas sector, nuclear energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy and ENTSO-E between 2013 and 2014.

In addition, the “High Level Energy Dialogue” was launched on March 16, 2015 and the “Joint Declaration” was published on March 17, 2015 in order to further develop strategic cooperation and dialogue in the field of energy between our country and the EU. At the ministerial level, two meetings have been held so far, and the last meeting was held at the technical level in Brussels on 26 February 2018.

On the other hand, on 15 July 2019, in light of Turkey’s continued and new drilling activities in the eastern Mediterranean, the Council of Foreign Affairs of the EU agreed not to hold further meetings of the EU-Turkey high-level dialogues, including TR-EU High Level Energy Dialogue.

 

ONGOING STUDIES

Although the chapter has not yet been opened for negotiations, it is among the chapters with high level of compliance. The studies carried out especially for the liberalization of the electricity markets, renewable energy and energy efficiency are also welcomed by the EU. (Turkey Report 2019)

 

IPA PROJECTS

Completed

Programming year

Name

Beneficiary

Status

2002

Strengthening the Institutional Capacity of EMRA

EPDK

Completed

2003

Complementary Technical Studies for the Synchronization of the Turkish Electrical System with UCTE

TEİAŞ

Completed

2003

Development of Regulatory Information System for EMRA

EPDK

Completed

2003

Support to BOTAŞ Regarding Natural Gas Transmission and Transit Doğal

BOTAŞ

Completed

2003

Increasing Energy Efficiency in Turkey

EİE

Completed

2005

Increasing Public Awareness Regarding Energy Efficiency in Buildings

EİE

Completed

2006

Strengthening Cross Border Trade

TEİAŞ

Completed

2007

Improving Frequency Control Performance of Turkey for Synchronous connection to the European Electricity Transmission System (UCTE)

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

Completed

2009

Strengthening the Capacity of TEİAŞ

TEİAŞ

Completed

2010

Harmonization with ENTSO-E Network Regulation

TEİAŞ

Completed

2011

Improving Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2012

Energy Sector Programme-Phase 1

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

Completed

 

Ongoing

2013

SIF (Sector Identification Fiche)

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, TAEK, BOTAŞ

Ongoing

2015

TA for Enhancement of Institutional Capacity in Energy Efficiency

ETKB

Ongoing

2015

Supply of Equipment for Improvement of Natural Gas Network

BOTAŞ

Ongoing

2015

TA for Improvement of Natural Gas Network

BOTAŞ

Ongoing

2015

TA for Development of Performance-based Tariff Mechanism

EPDK

Ongoing

2015

Supply of Equipment for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities

Municipalities and Universities

Ongoing

2015

TA for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities

Municipalities and Universities

Ongoing

 

 

 

 

 

 


Updated: 22/05/2020 / Hit: 74,331