Updated: 26/08/2021

Chapter 25- Science and Research

Content of the Chapter

The acquis in Chapter 25-Science and Research, requires the Member States to ensure the necessary implementing capacities to pursue the Community objectives and activities in the field of research and technological development. This Chapter does not require transposition of EU rules into the national legislation.

The implementing capacity in the context of Science and Research Chapter is related with the existence of the necessary conditions for the efficient participation of Turkish Research Area to Community Programmes.

The main topics under the Chapter Acquis are designated as:

-          European Research Area (ERA)

-          EU Framework Programmes

-          EURATOM Framework Programmes

-          Partnerships, Article 185 and Article 187 initiatives

-          Research Infrastructures and e-Infrastructures

-          Open Science Policy

-          Innovation Policy

Candidate Countries, under this Chapter, are expected to make progress in terms of integration to ERA and EU's science and research objectives. In that respect, efforts on the integration of Turkish Research Area (TARAL) to ERA and EU's science and research objectives are both ongoing.

In the context of reshaping ERA’s policy priorities and governance structure, Commission published Communication on A New ERA for Research and Innovation in September 2020, which lays out the strategic targets and actions of new ERA. In January 2021, ERA Transition Forum is established as an advisory body and the first output of the Forum was Pact for Research and Innovation in Europe.  In July 2021, Commission decided to implement the Council Recommendation on a Pact for Research and Innovation in Europe.

EU’s another item on its research and innovation agenda is artificial intelligence (AI) and cyber security. During 2018, Commission accelerated its efforts on AI and following a White Paper on AI in February 2020, a draft Regulation on AI is announced in April 2021.

Regarding research infrastructure, European Research Infrastructure Strategic Forum (ESFRI) published a White Paper that will pawe the way for discussions on the future policies on research infrastructures that is one of the key elements of ERA.

Considering open science policy, Regulation on European Data Governance was published in November 2020, that regulates the subjects such as secure data sharing, strenghtening data accessibility, establishment of data clouds both in public and private sector in Europe.

Current Stage of the Negotiations on the Chapter

Explanatory and bilateral screening meetings on Chapter 25-Science and Resarch were held on 20 October 2005 and 14 November 2005, respectively then the Chapter was opened to negotiations and provisionally closed for negotiation on 12th June 2006.

Turkey’s accelaration on science, technology and innovation area, that is a product of recent political ownership, national commitment and strategical approach, not only strenghten the national impetus but also the EU accession process. Science and Research Chapter, as a provisionally closed one, is an indicator for Turkey’s performance.

During the last decade, Turkey developed an appropriate development strategy based on her own natural state of progress and EU’s fundamental strategies on this area. Turkey invested on R&D considerably and these efforts resulted in gains in a short period of time. In 2019, the R&D expenditures/GDP ratio reached to 1.06%. Approximately 53% of the R&D expenditures financed by financial and non-financial corporations, 32% of the expenditures came from general government and 12% sourced from higher education sector while the rest sustained from domestic and international sources.

Turkey, acknowledging the main component of achieving progress in R&D is human component, doubled the number of researchers in the last ten years. 11th Development Plan of Turkey, covering 2019-2023 period, also features the science, technology and innovation policies, gives a special emphasis on R&D and innovation activities that support high value-added production, particularly through an efficient R&D and innovation ecosystem. Chemical industry, pharmaceuticals and medical devices electronics, machine and electrical equipment, automotive and rail systems. are designated as priority sectors while artificial intelligence, internet of things, augmented reality, big data, cyber security, energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, micro-nano electromechanical systems, biotechnology, quantum technologies, sensors and additive manufacturing technologies are determined as the critical technologies where the human resources is to be further supported, infrastructures to be established and roadmaps to be developed.

Turkey, as an essential component of ERA, has been participating EU Framework Programmes since 2002. The participation process that began with in 5th Framework Programmes (FP5) has prolonged to 2020 with the Agreement on the Participation of Turkey in Horizon 2020 that is signed on June 4, 2014. Therefore, the country gained access to a programme with 80 billion euro funding. Turkey is the 4th country among 16 associated countires regarding the participation to Horizon 2020 programme and will participate effectively to the new Framework Programme, Horizon Europe, that covers the 2021-2027 period with a budget of 95.5 billion euro.

Regarding innovation policy, Turkey performs as “moderate innovator”, a category includes countries such as Italy, Spain and Portugal, according to Innovation Scoreboard, a comprehensive evaluation based on 27 indicators and published by the Commission,

Within the Chapter framework, Turkey also works on strengthening of her role in ERA and attends all COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) and ERA activities, as well as the institutions that are responsible for the management of ERA.

Relevant Subcommittee Meeting
Screening Meetings


Updated: 26/08/2021 / Hit: 82,764