TÜRKÇE
  Updated: 15/11/2022

Chapter 15 - Energy

EUROPEAN UNION POLICY ON ENERGY

The EU energy policy is based on three principles:

  • Competitiveness
  • Security of supply
  • Sustainability

EU aims to have a balance between these objectives while establishing energy policies.

The EU energy legislation lays out the basis for competitive, diverse and cost effective energy market. Developing sustainable energy policies in order to address the challenges of climate change is also one of the main components of the EU’s energy policy.

Accordingly, the EU set, in 2009, integrated energy and climate targets for 2020: The targets of reducing energy consumption by 20%, increasing the share of renewable energy resources by 20% and  reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 20% are collectively known as “20/20/20 by 2020” targets.

In order to reform and reorganise Europe’s energy policy into a new European Energy Union, “A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy” was published in 25 February 2015. 

The “Energy Union Framework Strategy” has five mutually-reinforcing and closely interrelated dimensions designed to bring greater energy security, sustainability and competitiveness:

  1. Energy security, solidarity and trust
  2. A fully integrated European energy market
  3. Energy efficiency contributing to moderation of demand,
  4. Decarbonising the economy and
  5. Research, innovation and competitiveness 

The EU shows strong political will and determination to form “common energy policy” by this strategy and accompanying action plan.

One of the concrete outcomes of the Energy Union Framework Strategy was the announcement of the "Clean Energy for all Europeans" package on 30 November 2016 in order to continue to lead the global energy transition following the signing of the Paris Agreement. With the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, the EU pledged to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions of at least 40% by 2030. The EU revised its renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for 2030, initially adopted in 2014, in order to support this ambition. Accordingly, legally binding targets to increase the share of renewable energy in energy consumption to at least 32% and increase energy efficiency by at least 32.5% were adopted.

The EU overhauled its energy policy framework in 2019 in accordance with the legislative acts proposed in the Clean Energy Packagecovering issues on energy efficiency, renewable energy, electricity market design, electricity supply security and a governance system for the Energy Union.

The regulation regarding the governance of the Energy Union under the Clean Energy Package is aimed at creating a simple, robust and transparent governance system that supports long-term certainty and predictability for investors and enables the EU and Member States to work together to achieve their 2030 goals and the EU's international commitments under the Paris Agreement. In this context, Governance Regulation urged each Member State to prepare a National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) starting from 2021-2030 period, covering the five dimensions of the Energy Union, and outlining how they will achieve their objectives in that regard.

On 11 December 2019, the new European Commission announced the European Green Deal (EGD), which sets goal of making Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. In line with this new growth strategy of the EU, the EU has entered a period of profound transition that will reshape its entire economy. Decarbonization of the energy system which is responsible for around 75 % of the EU’s GHG emissions, is at the heart of this transition.  Accordingly, important strategy documents such as Hydrogen Strategy, Renovation Wave, Methane Strategy, Offshore Renewable Energy Strategy and Energy Systems Integration Strategy were adopted in 2020 to initiate the implementation of the EGD.

On 9 July 2021, the EU published the European Climate Law (Regulation (EU) 2021/1119), which enshrines in law the EU’s objective of becoming climate neutral by 2050, and an intermediate target of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030. The European Climate Law sets the stage for a series of regulatory initiatives aimed at achieving aforementioned targets. Accordingly, a package of legislative proposals called "Fit-for-55" was presented by the European Commission on 14 July 2021 to align EU’s energy and climate regulatory framework with the new target of "net domestic reduction of at least 55% greenhouse gas emissions by 2030”.

The package contains legislative proposals to revise the entire EU 2030 climate and energy framework, including the legislation on effort sharing, land use and forestry, renewable energy, energy efficiency, emission standards for new cars and vans, the Energy Taxation Directive, the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). The package proposes, among other measures, to tighten the current 2030 targets for RES (as 40% by 2030) and energy efficiency (as 36-39% by 2030). All of these proposals will individually go through extensive debate within Member States and at the EU level over the coming months.

 

CONTENT OF THE CHAPTER

The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply.  

Electricity and Natural Gas

The EU's directives on the electricity and natural gas sectors envisage that these markets are fully opened to competition and that all consumers can freely choose their suppliers and they are regulated by independent authorities. Also, improved cross-border trade, ensuring security of supply and providing access to the networks without discrimination by all parties are part of the legislation.

With the Clean Energy Package announced in 2016, a number of revisions were made in the legislation, and the current legislation on the electricity and natural gas markets is listed below:

 

  • Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union (Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council)

Renewable Energy

The development of renewable energy sources (RES) is among the main priorities of the EU which appreciates their crucial role in both energy supply security and fighting climate change. The development of the related industry for these technologies is also deemed important for the creation of new jobs in the current economic environment within the Europe.

In December 2018, the revised Renewable Energy Directive entered into force (Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) as part of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package. 

Energy efficiency

The EU legislation under energy efficiency covers the eco-design requirements of energy consuming products, cogeneration, energy performance of buildings, daylight saving applications and energy labeling. The main legislation on energy efficiency is listed below:

Nuclear safety and radiation protection

The EU acquis on nuclear energy comprises of nuclear safety at all stages of nuclear energy generation, radioactive waste and spent fuel management, radiation protection and nuclear power plant safety regulations (including responsibilities with respect to decomissioning, waste management, radiation protection, environmental impacts, economic and fiscal aspects and creating public awareness).

 

RELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND USEFUL LINKS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ENERGY CHAPTER

For detailed information on the European Union energy policy:

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/summary/chapter/energy.html?root_default=SUM_1_CODED=18

European Commission DG ENERGY website

 

CURRENT NEGOTIATIONS ON THE ENERGY CHAPTER

The explanatory meeting for the energy chapter was realized between 15-17 May 2006 and the country session was completed between 14-15 June 2006. The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply.

On the other hand, following the European Council Decision on October 15, 2015 to re-energize the accession process, studies for updating the draft screening report have been initiated in November 2015 and the studies for the finalization of the technical aspects is ongoing. The screening report is still in the Council and has not been conveyed to the Turkish side. There is information that certain Member States are preventing progress in the Council and that non-technical considerations without relevance to the acquis communautaire have prevailed. 

Besides, in 2012 “Positive Agenda” was initiated in order to gain momentum in the negiotiations. In this context, on 14 June 2012, "Türkiye-EU Energy Sector Enhanced Cooperation" document was prepared to create concrete solutions for the energy cooperation.

Under the roadmap, working groups were established the coordination of our and five working group meetings were organized on electricity sector, natural gas sector, nuclear energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy and ENTSO-E between 2013 and 2014.

In addition, the “High Level Energy Dialogue” was launched on March 16, 2015 and the “Joint Declaration” was published on March 17, 2015 in order to further develop strategic cooperation and dialogue in the field of energy between our country and the EU. At the ministerial level, two meetings have been held so far, and the last meeting was held at the technical level in Brussels on 26 February 2018.On 15 July 2019, in light of Türkiye’s continued and new drilling activities in the eastern Mediterranean, the Council of Foreign Affairs of the EU agreed not to hold further meetings of the EU-Türkiye high-level dialogues, including TR-EU High Level Energy Dialogue.

8 subcommittees have been established by the Association Council Decision No. 3/2000 on 11 April 2000 to monitor progress with the priorities of the accession partnership and approximation of legislation. The subcommittees do not have any decision making power. The last meeting of Subcommittee No. 6 on Transport, Environment, Energy and Trans-European Networks was held online on 20-22 April 2021.

ONGOING STUDIES

Although the chapter has not yet been opened for negotiations, it is among the chapters with high level of compliance. The studies carried out especially for the security of supply, , renewable energy and energy efficiency are also welcomed by the EU. (Türkiye Report 2021)

 

IPA PROJECTS

Completed

Programming year

Name

Beneficiary

Status

2002

Strengthening the Institutional Capacity of EMRA

EPDK

Completed

2003

Complementary Technical Studies for the Synchronization of the Turkish Electrical System with UCTE

TEİAŞ

Completed

2003

Development of Regulatory Information System for EMRA

EPDK

Completed

2003

Support to BOTAŞ Regarding Natural Gas Transmission and Transit Doğal

BOTAŞ

Completed

2003

Increasing Energy Efficiency in Türkiye

EİE

Completed

2005

Increasing Public Awareness Regarding Energy Efficiency in Buildings

EİE

Completed

2006

Strengthening Cross Border Trade

TEİAŞ

Completed

2007

Improving Frequency Control Performance of Türkiye for Synchronous connection to the European Electricity Transmission System (UCTE)

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

Completed

2009

Strengthening the Capacity of TEİAŞ

TEİAŞ

Completed

2010

Harmonization with ENTSO-E Network Regulation

TEİAŞ

Completed

2011

Improving Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Completed

2012

Energy Sector Programme-Phase 1

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources

Completed

2013

SIF (Sector Identification Fiche)

Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, TAEK, BOTAŞ

Completed

2015

TA for Enhancement of Institutional Capacity in Energy Efficiency

ETKB

Completed

2015

Supply of Equipment for Improvement of Natural Gas Network

BOTAŞ

Completed

2015

TA for Improvement of Natural Gas Network

BOTAŞ

Completed

2015

TA for Development of Performance-based Tariff Mechanism

EPDK

Completed

 

Ongoing

2015

Supply of Equipment for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities

Municipalities and Universities

Ongoing

2015

TA for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities

Municipalities and Universities

Ongoing

 

 


Updated: 15/11/2022 / Hit: 103,102