Updated: 14/02/2023

Chapter 15 - Energy


The EU energy policy is based on three principles:

  • Competitiveness
  • Security of supply
  • Sustainability

EU aims to have a balance between these objectives while establishing energy policies.

The EU energy legislation lays out the basis for competitive, diverse and cost effective energy market. Developing sustainable energy policies in order to address the challenges of climate change is also one of the main components of the EU’s energy policy.

In order to reform and reorganise Europe’s energy policy into a new European Energy Union, “A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy” was published in 25 February 2015. 

The “Energy Union Framework Strategy” has five mutually-reinforcing and closely interrelated dimensions designed to bring greater energy security, sustainability and competitiveness:

  1. Energy security, solidarity and trust
  2. A fully integrated European energy market
  3. Energy efficiency contributing to moderation of demand,
  4. Decarbonising the economy and
  5. Research, innovation and competitiveness 

The EU shows strong political will and determination to form “common energy policy” by this strategy and accompanying action plan.

One of the concrete outcomes of the Energy Union Framework Strategy was the announcement of the "Clean Energy for all Europeans" package on 30 November 2016 in order to continue to lead the global energy transition following the EU’s ratification of the Paris Agreement. With the Paris Climate Agreement, the EU pledged to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions of at least 40% by 2030. The EU revised its renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for 2030, initially adopted in 2014, in order to support this ambition. Accordingly, legally binding targets to increase the share of renewable energy in energy consumption to at least 32% and increase energy efficiency by at least 32.5% were adopted.

The EU overhauled its energy policy framework in 2019 in accordance with the legislative acts proposed in the Clean Energy Package covering issues on energy efficiency, renewable energy, electricity market design, electricity supply security and a governance system for the Energy Union.

The regulation regarding the governance of the Energy Union under the Clean Energy Package is aimed at creating a simple, robust and transparent governance system that supports long-term certainty and predictability for investors and enables the EU and Member States to work together to achieve their 2030 goals and the EU's international commitments under the Paris Agreement. In this context, Governance Regulation urged each Member State to prepare a National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) starting from 2021-2030 period, covering the five dimensions of the Energy Union, and outlining how they will achieve their objectives in that regard. Each country must submit a progress report every 2 years,

On 11 December 2019, the new European Commission announced the European Green Deal (EGD), which sets goal of making Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. In line with this new growth strategy of the EU, the EU has entered a period of profound transition that will reshape its entire economy. Decarbonization of the energy system which is responsible for around 75 % of the EU’s GHG emissions, is at the heart of this transition.  Accordingly, important strategy documents such as Hydrogen Strategy, Renovation Wave, Methane Strategy, Offshore Renewable Energy Strategy and Energy Systems Integration Strategy were adopted in 2020 to initiate the implementation of the EGD.

On 9 July 2021, the EU published the European Climate Law (Regulation (EU) 2021/1119), which enshrines in law the EU’s objective of becoming climate neutral by 2050, and an intermediate target of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030. The European Climate Law sets the stage for a series of regulatory initiatives aimed at achieving aforementioned targets. Accordingly, a package of legislative proposals called "Fit-for-55" was presented by the European Commission on 14 July 2021 to align EU’s energy and climate regulatory framework with the new target of "net domestic reduction of at least 55% greenhouse gas emissions by 2030”.

The package contains legislative proposals to revise the entire EU 2030 climate and energy framework, including the legislation on effort sharing, land use and forestry, renewable energy, energy efficiency, emission standards for new cars and vans, the Energy Taxation Directive, the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). The package proposes, among other measures, to tighten the current 2030 targets for RES (as 40% by 2030) and energy efficiency (as 36-39% by 2030). All of these proposals will individually go through extensive debate within Member States and at the EU level over the coming months.

In response to the turmoil in the global energy market accelerated by the impact of the Ukraine war, the European Commission has proposed the "REPowerEU" plan to make Europe independent of Russian fossil fuels well before 2030. REPowerEU, announced on 18 May 2022, aims to save energy, produce clean energy, and diversify energy supplies. It is backed by financial and legal measures to build the new energy infrastructure and system that Europe needs.

Short Term Measures

  • Common purchases of gas, LNG and hydrogen via the EU Energy Platform for all Member States who want to participate as well as Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia and the Western Balkans
  • New energy partnerships with reliable suppliers, including future cooperation on renewables and low carbon gases
  • Rapid roll out of solar and wind energy projects combined with renewable hydrogen deployment to save around 50 bcm of gas imports
  • Increase the production of biomethane to save 17 bcm of gas imports
  • Approval of first EU-wide hydrogen projects by the summer
  • An EU Save Energy Communication with recommendations for how citizens and businesses can save around 13 bcm of gas imports
  • Fill gas storage to 80% of capacity by 1 November 2022
  • EU-coordinated demand reduction plans in case of gas supply disruption

Medium-Term Measures to be Completed Before 2027

  • New national REPowerEU Plans under the modified Recovery and Resilience Fund – to support investment and reforms worth €300 billion
  • Boosting industrial decarbonisation with around €3 billion of frontloaded projects under the Innovation Fund
  • New legislation and recommendations for faster permitting of renewables especially in dedicated ‘go–to areas’ with low environmental risk
  • Investments in an integrated and adapted gas and electricity infrastructure network
  • Increased ambition on energy savings by raising the EU-wide target on efficiency for 2030 from 9% to 13%
  • Increase the European renewables target for 2030 from 40% to 45%
  • New EU proposals to ensure industry has access to critical raw materials
  • Regulatory measures to increase energy efficiency in the transport sector
  • A hydrogen accelerator to build 17.5 GW by 2025 of electrolysers to fuel EU industry with homegrown production of 10 million tonnes renewable hydrogen
  • A modern regulatory framework for hydrogen


The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply. The legislation is currently being reviewed in line with the European Green Deal and the REPowerEU priorities.

Electricity and Natural Gas

The EU's directives on the electricity and natural gas sectors envisage that these markets are fully opened to competition and that all consumers can freely choose their suppliers and they are regulated by independent authorities. Also, improved cross-border trade, ensuring security of supply and providing access to the networks without discrimination by all parties are part of the legislation.

With the Clean Energy Package announced in 2016, a number of revisions were made in the legislation, and the current legislation on the electricity and natural gas markets is listed below:

Renewable Energy

The development of renewable energy sources (RES) is among the main priorities of the EU which appreciates their crucial role in both energy supply security and fighting climate change. The development of the related industry for these technologies is also deemed important for the creation of new jobs in the current economic environment within the Europe.

Energy efficiency

The EU legislation under energy efficiency covers the eco-design requirements of energy consuming products, cogeneration, energy performance of buildings, daylight saving applications and energy labeling. The main legislation on energy efficiency is listed below:

Nuclear safety and radiation protection

The EU acquis on nuclear energy comprises of nuclear safety at all stages of nuclear energy generation, radioactive waste and spent fuel management, radiation protection and nuclear power plant safety regulations (including responsibilities with respect to decomissioning, waste management, radiation protection, environmental impacts, economic and fiscal aspects and creating public awareness).

  • The EU attaches utmost importance to a high level of nuclear safety. A framework Directive in this area has been adopted on 25 June 2009. (Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom of 25 June 2009 establishing a Community Framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations and its amendment Directive 2014/87/Euratom).
  • All member states are required to have a national policy for radioactive waste and spent fuel management (Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste).
  • Furthermore, basic safety standards have been established to protect the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation). 
  • In addition, Council Directive 2013/51/Euratom focuses on monitoring radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption (Council Directive 2013/51/Euratom of 22 October 2013 laying down requirements for the protection of the health of the general public with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption)
  • A system of prior authorisation for shipments of radioactive waste was established in the EU in 1992 and amended significantly by Council Directive 2006/117/Euratom of 20 November 2006 on the supervision and control of shipments of radioactive waste and spent fuel, which aims to guarantee an adequate level of public protection from such shipments.
  • A number of regulations have been adopted over time and amended in order to establish a system of safeguards ensuring that nuclear materials are used only for the purposes declared by their users and that international obligations are complied with, e.g. Commission Regulation (Euratom) No 302/2005 of 8 February 2005 on the application of Euratom safeguards


For detailed information on the European Union energy policy:


European Commission DG ENERGY website


The explanatory meeting for the energy chapter was realized between 15-17 May 2006 and the country session was completed between 14-15 June 2006. The legislation in the context of energy chapter focuses mainly on the internal energy market (electricity and natural gas markets), energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, nuclear safety, radiation protection and security of supply. The screening report has not been officially conveyed to Türkiye.

On the other hand, following the European Council Decision on October 15, 2015 to re-energize the accession process, studies for updating the draft screening report have been initiated in November 2015. Draft report has been delivered to the Council at the end of April 2016. The screening report is still in the Council and has not been conveyed to the Turkish side. There is information that certain Member States are preventing progress in the Council and that non-technical considerations without relevance to the acquis communautaire have prevailed.

A “Positive Agenda” was initiated in in 2012 in order to gain momentum in the negiotiations. In this context, on 14 June 2012, "Turkey-EU Energy Sector Enhanced Cooperation" document was prepared to create concrete solutions for the energy cooperation. Under the roadmap, working groups were established with our coordination and five working group meetings were organized on electricity sector, natural gas sector, nuclear energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy and ENTSO-E between 2013 and 2014.

In addition, the “High Level Energy Dialogue” was launched on March 16, 2015 and the “Joint Declaration” was published on March 17, 2015 in order to further develop strategic cooperation and dialogue in the field of energy between our country and the EU. At the ministerial level, two meetings have been held so far, and the last meeting was held at the technical level in Brussels on 26 February 2018.On 15 July 2019, the Council of Foreign Affairs of the EU decided not to hold further meetings of the EU-Türkiye high-level dialogues, including TR-EU High Level Energy Dialogue, referring to Türkiye’s drilling activities in the Eastern Mediterranean.


Although the chapter has not yet been opened for negotiations, it is among the chapters with high level of compliance. The studies carried out especially for the security of supply and renewable energy are welcomed by the EU. (Turkey Report)



Programming year Name Beneficiary Status
2002 Strengthening the Institutional Capacity of EMRA EPDK Completed
2003 Complementary Technical Studies for the Synchronization of the Turkish Electrical System with UCTE TEİAŞ Completed
2003 Development of Regulatory Information System for EMRA EPDK Completed
2003 Support to BOTAŞ Regarding Natural Gas Transmission and Transit BOTAŞ Completed
2003 Increasing Energy Efficiency in Turkey EİE Completed
2005 Increasing Public Awareness Regarding Energy Efficiency in Buildings EİE Completed
2006 Strengthening Cross Border Trade TEİAŞ Completed
2007 Improving Frequency Control Performance of Turkey for Synchronous connection to the European Electricity Transmission System (UCTE) Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources Completed
2009 Strengthening the Capacity of TEİAŞ TEİAŞ Completed
2010 Harmonization with ENTSO-E Network Regulation TEİAŞ Completed
2011 Improving Energy Efficiency in Buildings Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Completed
2012 Energy Sector Programme-Phase 1 Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources Completed
2013 SIF (Sector Identification Fiche) Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, TAEK, BOTAŞ Completed
2015 TA for Enhancement of Institutional Capacity in Energy Efficiency ETKB Completed
2015 Supply of Equipment for Improvement of Natural Gas Network BOTAŞ Completed
2015 TA for Improvement of Natural Gas Network BOTAŞ Completed
2015 TA for Development of Performance-based Tariff Mechanism EPDK Completed
2015 Supply of Equipment for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities Municipalities and Universities Completed
2015 TA for Res and En. Eff. Support for Municipalities and Universities Municipalities and Universities Completed





Updated: 14/02/2023 / Hit: 110,945